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Create Unique Domain Name

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Internationalized domain name makes it possible for person or organization to register a domain name that include non alphanumeric characters to its domain name. This is useful mostly for countries that use German, Japanese, or Arabic.

An example for this is a website of Jebu Island (???.com). If you click the link, it will take you to http://xn--hq1bp8p1yi.com/.

While using international characters may work for some, that doesn’t really mean your website will be uniquely identified. It may help people using those characters to find your website.

A creative way to exploit this internationalized domain name is by using symbols on your domain name. An example for this is what Daring Fireball does for its shortened URLs. The website used http://?df.ws/ for that purpose and on twitter it’s pretty catchy.

One thing to remember though, don’t use symbols on domain name to make your users find you easier. In fact, it is very hard to type symbols using normal keyboard. Like Daring Fireball, use it somewhere to make the domain names catchy and outstanding.

So the question is now, how to create such domain name? First of course, you need to decide what the name of the website should be. For this you will need a list of supported symbols. You can find that in this page under Script: COMMON.

Then… find out what is the real domain name by entering the name in Punycode Converter. I for example enter ?1k.ws and as the result get xn--1k-5qv.ws.

If you’ve got the encoded domain name, you can try to register the domain name to a registrar. I found that domain .ws is the most unrestrictive top level domain that will allow you to use all the symbols on the previous page. The other top level domain like .com, .org, and .net are pretty strict and don’t allow symbols (and only internationalized characters) on the domain name.

So, good luck for your next unique domain name!

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Create Unique Domain Name originally appeared on satukubik on June 30, 2010.

Written by Nanda Firdausi

June 30th, 2010 at 6:56 pm

Bekerja dengan Hati

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Ketika selesai berbelanja di Pasar Baru Bandung, saya dengan ibu yang datang dari Padang makan siang di arena food court di lantai paling atas pasar itu. Banyak sekali gerai makanan di arena itu, mulai dari makanan tradisional hingga makanan asing. Baru saja masuk ke arena itu kami sudah dirayu oleh para pegawai gerai untuk mampir dan makan di tempat mereka. Bingung juga ya memilihnya, dan yang bikin pusing rayuan para pegawai itu. Akhirnya kami memilih sebuah gerai tradisionil setelah melihat spanduknya yang menarik dengan foto makanan yang menggoda selera. Ibu saya memesan nasi goreng, sementara saya memesan nasi dan ikan mas goreng cobek. Setelah mencoba beberapa suap makanan itu, uff… saya kecewa sekali. Rasanya biasa-biasa saja, kurang enak gitu. Apalagi nasi goreng yang dipesan ibu saya, seperti nasi yang ditambah kecap saja. Tidak ada aroma bumbu di dalam nasi goreng itu. Sebagai orang yang bisa memasak, saya menduga tukang masak nasi gorengnya hanya menggunakan seiris dua iris bawang putih, lalu garam, dan kecap. Benar-benar sangat minimalis. Niat nggak sih berjualan makanan kalau minimalis begitu? Asal-asalan saja memasaknya. Sudah harganya mahal, nggak enak lagi. Cukup sekali makan di tempat itu, saya tidak mau lagi

Saya teringat dengan pedagang pepes nasi yang biasa saya kunjungi. Nasi pepesnya enak banget, mantap. Bumbu-bumbunya meresap, terasa gurihnya. Saya memuji jualan si bapak itu, sebab di tempat lain pepes nasi yang saya beli rasanya biasa-biasa saja. Si bapak pedagang itu menjawab kalau dia memang dengan niat sepenuh hati menghadirkan masakan yang enak bagi pembeli. Pembeli terpikat dengan rasa makanannya, lalu datang lagi, dan datang lagi. Banyak orang berjualan makanan di kota ini, tetapi tidak menimbulkan kesan setelah makan. Kalau untuk sekedar memenuhi rasa lapar sih iya, memang mengenyangkan, tetapi bagi penikmat makanan mungkin itu yang pertama dan terakhir makan di tempat itu. Orang tidak akan datang lagi, kapok.

Kata-kata si bapak pedagang pepes nasi tadi terngiang terus di telinga saya. Bekerja dengan hati, itu kuncinya. Memasak makanan itu tidak hanya sekadar menggunakan bumbu dan resep yang enak, tetapi harus melibatkan hati agar masakan terasa enak. Memasak harus sepenuh hati, memang betul-betul diniatkan dengan sungguh-sungguh agar pembeli puas. Di sebuah kedai mandarin (halal) yang saya kunjungi, saya melihat sebenarnya bumbu-bumbunya sudah mencukupi untuk menjadi hidangan mandarin yang enak. Tetapi si tukang masaknya saya terlihat asal-asalan saja memasak nasi goreng seafood pesanan saya. Dari gelagatnya memasak saya sudah menduga jika nasi goreng pesanan saya tidak akan enak. Tidak sampai 2 menit nasi goreng selesai. Nasi goreng apaan itu, dimasaknya terburu-buru dengan api besar. Nasi goreng yang gosong, baru dua sendok saya tidak melanjutkan makan. Minggu lalu saya lihat kedai hidangan mandarin ini sudah tutup karena merugi tidak ada pembeli. Pantesan saja, kata saya dalam hati, orang tidak akan datang lagi ke kedainya setelah tahu masakannya tidak enak.

~~~~~~~~~

Begitu pula kita dalam bekerja. Bekerja itu harus melibatkan hati, tidak bisa asal selesai tugas begitu saja. Bekerja dengan sepenuh hati akan memberikan hasil yang memuaskan, tidak hanya bagi diri sendiri tetapi juga bagi orang lain. Apalagi bagi sebagian besar orang di kota yang bekerja dalam sektor pelayanan dan jasa, sangat penting mengikat pelanggan agar datang lagi dan datang lagi. Kuncinya adalah memberikan pelayanan yang terbaik pada setiap orang yang datang. Kita mungkin pernah punya pengalaman tidak mengenakkan karena pernah dilayani oleh pegawai suatu kantor atau toko dengan jutek dan tidak ramah. Apa akibatnya? Kita merasa kecewa dan kapok datang dan berurusan ke sana lagi.

Bekerja dengan hati artinya totalitas dalam bekerja. Bahasa lainnya adalah dedikasi. Doing the best, berikan yang terbaik bagi orang lain. Seorang guru atau dosen misalnya harus memiliki dedikasi agar menjadi pengajar dan pendidik yang baik sehingga nanti selalu dikenang oleh anak didiknya karena memberikan kesan mendalam. Mahasiswa bisa menilai mana dosennya yang mengajar dengan dedikasi, mana yang hanya menjadikan mengajar sebagai profesi sambilan. Waktu saya menjadi mahasiswa saya pernah diajar dosen yang sepertinya mengajar tidak diniatkan dan tanpa persiapan. Apa yang ada dalam pikirannya itulah yang dia terangkan pada hari itu. Materinya melompat-lompat dan membingungkan. Mungkin dosen ini banyak proyek kali sehingga dia mengajar asal-asalan tanpa persiapan, pikir saya. Saya sama sekali tidak mendapatkan apa-apa dalam kuliahnya, saya lebih paham membaca buku teks daripada mendengarkan kuliahnya. Malah, ketika UTS dosen tersebut tidak membuat lembar soal seperti dosen lainnya, tetapi baru pas dia masuk kelas dia menuliskan dua buah soal ujian di papan tulis. Benar-benar tanpa persiapan. Ketika saya menjadi dosen, saya belajar dari kasus itu dan tidak mau mengulangi kesalahan yang sama.

Ketika saya mengikuti pendidikan prajabatan pegawai negeri sipil, seorang instruktur menceritakan pengalaman dosennya ketika dia mengambil kuliah di Eropa. Dosennya seorang profesor yang berdedikasi tinggi dalam memberikan kuliah. Satu jam sebelum profesor itu mengajar, dia tidak mau diganggu siapapun. Kamar kerjanya tertutup dari menerima kunjungan. Selama satu jam itu dia melakukan persiapan kuliah, termasuk memikirkan apa saja kata-kata yang hendak dia lontarkan dalam kuliah nanti, apa saja contoh dan studi kasus yang akan diberikan dalam kuliah, dan sebagainya. Bahkan, dia juga memikirkan joke-joke apa yang akan dia lemparkan kepada mahasiswanya supaya kuliahnya, pada menit keberapa dia lontarkan joke-joke itu. Wah… luar biasa profesor ini, kata saya.

Kalau semua orang seperti profesor itu, yaitu bekerja dengan penuh dedikasi, maka kita tidak akan merasakan pengalaman mengecewakan lagi ketika berhubungan dengan orang lain. Setiap orang bekerja memberikan yang terbaik bagi orang lain. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting melibatkan hati sepenuhnya dalam bekerja. Percaya atau tidak, bekerja sepenuh hati akan melahirkan rasa ikhlas. Ikhlas artinya belkerja sepenuh jiwa dan raga tanpa ada maksud pribadi seperti mengharapkan pujian dan sebagainya. Kalau sudah ikhlas dalam bekerja, apalagi pencapaian tertinggi yang dicari dalam hidup ini ya?


Written by rinaldimunir

June 30th, 2010 at 10:48 am

Posted in Renunganku

Musim Liburan, Musim Sunat (Pengalaman Khitan Anak di Klinik Dokter Seno)

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Liburan telah tiba, anak-anak bergembira karena membayangkan pergi liburan ke tempat wisata. Tapi tidak dengan sebagian orangtua, liburan datang artinya waktunya untuk mengkhitankan anak. Saya pun begitu, dua orang anak laki-laki saya sudah waktunya untuk dikhitan. Sejak awal tahun 2010 saya sudah mengkondisikan mereka bahwa liburan panjang pertengahan tahun nanti mereka akan disunat, agar mereka sudah siap. Teman-teman sekelas mereka sudah banyak dikhitan, jadi anak saya malu juga kalau dirinya yang sudah besar belum disunat.

Di dalam Islam berkhitan adalah sunnah Rasul bagi anak laki-laki sebelum akil baliq (masa menginjak dewasa). Tanda seorang menjadi muslim adalah dia dikhitan. Ajaran khitan ternyata tidak hanya dalam agama Islam saja, penganut Yahudi juga melaksanakan khitan. Dalam sejarahnya Nabi Isa (Yesus) juga dikhitan karena dia terlahir dari seorang Yahudi, namun pengikut agama Nasrani saat ini tidak melaksanakan khitan sebagaimana Nabi Isa. Saya tidak tahu alasannya, mungkin pembaca yang beragama Kristen bisa menjelaskannya.

Khitan artinya membuang kulit kulup penutup (maaf) alat kelamin laki-laki. Ilmu kedokteran sudah mengakui kalau khitan ternyata mempunyai manfaat ditinjau dari sudut medis, yaitu untuk menghindari penularan penyakit kelamin, HIV, dan sebagainya. Kulit penutup alat kelamin laki-laki tadi adalah sarangnya kotoran yang sulit dibersihkan dan tempat subur kuman penyakit. Dengan membuang kulup tadi maka seorang laki-laki terhindar dari penyakit melalui alat kelaminnya. Karena alasan medis tadi, banyak orang yang bukan muslim sekalipun melaksanakan khitan, termasuk di klink khitan yang akan saya ceritakan nanti.

Tiap suku bangsa di Indonesia mempunyai tradisi khitan masing-masing. Orang Sunda mengkhitankan anaknya ketika masih balita, yaitu umur 3 hingga 5 tahun. Sebaliknya orang Jawa mengkhitankan anak ketika mendekati akil baliq, yaitu kira-kira masih kelas 6 SD atau umur 12 tahun. Sedangkan orang Minang seperti saya tengah-tengahnya, yaitu ketika anak berumur 9 atau 10 tahun (kelas 4 atau 5 SD). Di tanah Sunda prosesi khitan diakhiri dengan pesta syukuran dengan menghadirkan kesenian sisingaan. Anak laki-laki yang telah dikhitan dinaikkan ke atas sisingaan sebagai pengantin sunat, lalu ditandu oleh orang dewasa yang membawa sisingaan itu. Tujuannya adalah untuk memberi hiburan bagi anak dan melupakan rasa sakit akibat disunat. Saat ini kesenian sisingaan sudah banyak digantikan dengan orgen tunggal.

Sejak awal tahun 2010 saya sudah survei tempat-tempat khitan dan bertanya kepada teman-teman serta tetangga. Saya juga membaca tentang teknik khitan yang beraneka ragam, ada yang cara biasa, ada pula dengan teknik laser (yang sebenarnya adalah pisau elektrik atau cauter). Pokoknya cari tempat khitan yang tidak menimbulkan terlalu sakit bagi anak. Pilihan saya jatuh pada Klinik Khitan Dokter Seno (Seno Medika) di Jalan Ahmad Yani, Cicadas Bandung. Klinik ini memang sudah terkenal sejak tahun 1973 sebagai tempat khitan. Alasan memilih tempat ini berdasarkan pengalaman orang yang anaknya dikhitan. Katanya khitan oleh Dokter Seno tidak terasa sakit dan cepat sembuh (tiga hari sudah sembuh). Selain itu luka khitan tidak diperban. Oh ya, Dokter Seno juga sudah pengalaman mengkhitan anak-anak berkebutuhan khusus seperti autis, hiperaktif, down syndrome, dan sebagainya (klik situs web Dokter Seno).

Yang disunat adalah anak, tetapi yang stres adalah orangtuanya. Orangtua stres kalau nanti anaknya meronta, ketakutan, takut banyak pendarahan, dan pelbagai pikiran buruk lainnya menghantui. Sayapun begitu, malam sebelum dikhitan saya tidak bisa tidur membayangkan apa yang terjadi esok hari. Waktu khitan yang saya pilih adalah subuh. Waktu terbaik untuk khitan adalah dinihari hingga pagi hari sebab waktu itu aktivitas anak belum banyak bergerak sehingga peredaran darahnya belum terlalu lancar (tidak banyak pendarahan kalau dikhitan).

Setelah shalat Subuh kami membawa anak ke klinik dokter Seno. Oalah, ternyata musim liburan ini banyak sekali anak yang mau disunat. Yang disunat hanya seorang, tetapi pengantarnya banyak sekali, seperti mengantar jamaah haji saja. Mulai orangtua, kakek nenek, paman, dan sudara mengantar si anak ke dokter Seno. Ruang tunggu penuh dengan pengantar.

Satu per satu anak-anak dipanggil masuk ke ruang operasi. “Sini ya, difoto dulu”, kata petugas. Ternyata ucapan mau difoto itu hanya taktik agar si anak tidak takut. Ajaib, si anak menurut saja seolah-olah terhipnotis tanpa merasa takut sama sekali. Ih, seperti mau masuk bioskop saja. Pengantar hanya boleh sampai di depan pintu saja, setelah itu urusan petugas medis dan dokter. Saya tidak tahu apa yang terjadi di dalam. Eh, lima belas menit kemudian si anak sudah keluar sambil senyum-senyum. Di kepalanya ada topi hadiah dari dokter, lalu tangannya memegang sebungkus besar makanan ringan kesukaan anak-anak. Anak-anak keluar dengan memakai celana seperti dia masuk. Habis disunat sudah bisa pakai celana dan sama sekali tidak ada pendarahan. Saya tanya anak saya apa yang terjadi di dalam. Katanya dokter mengajaknya ngobrol-ngobrol, lalu disuruh melihat TV di depan. Tahu-tahu sudah selesai. Sakitnya hanya waktu disuntik kebal, seperti digigit semut. Saya dengar anak-anak yang disunat dokter Seno seolah-olah seperti terhipnotis saja, meskipun saya kira itu bukan hipnotis, mungkin semacam sugesti saja.

Banyak sekali anak-anak yang dikhitan hari itu, tidak henti-hentinya anak-anak mengalir datang dan pergi. Saya juga melihat dua orang anak dari etnis Tionghoa menunggu giliran untuk dikhitan. Saya juga mendengar nama anak yang berbau nama baptis (Laurensius) dipanggil masuk ke ruang operasi. Rupanya para orangua yang non muslim sudah banyak yang menyadarai manfaat khitan ini sehingga merekapun membawa anak-anaknya khitan di klinik dokter Seno.

Alhamdulillah, masa sulit itu akhirnya berakhir. Hari ini tadi pagi sungguh terasa berat, tetapi sekarang sudah lega rasanya. Salah satu fase dalam kehidupan anak lelaki muslim akhirnya sudah berhasil dilewati. Tinggal menunggu penyembuhan selama tiga hari, dan selama tiga hari itu saya tidak ke kantor untuk merawat luka khitan di rumah. Di rumah luka jahitan setelah dikhitan harus rajin ditetes obat supaya cepat kering dan lekas sembuh. Mudah-mudahan setelah dikhitan anak-anak itu menjadi anak yang shaleh. Mereka sudah melaksanakan salah satu sunnah Rasul.


Written by rinaldimunir

June 28th, 2010 at 4:16 pm

Posted in Agama,Gado-gado

Gempa dan Gerhana Bulan

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Sore kemarin, sekitar pukul 17.00, warga Bandung dikejutkan gempa yang cukup besar. Gempa yang berpusat di Tasikmalaya itu berkekuatan 6,3 SR terasa tidak hanya di Bandung, tapi juga sampai Sukabumi dan Tegal. Istri saya yang waktu itu berada di Pasar Baru (gedung bertingkat 8), terengah-engah melaporkan via ponsel bahwa ribuan pengunjung Pasar Baru panik dan berlarian turun ke bawah. Apalagi ada teriakan dari seorang bapak yang mengatakan gedung itu sudah hampir roboh. Gempa berlangsung sebentar tetapi dua kali. Anehnya saya di rumah tidak merasakan apa-apa.

Entah kebetulan entah tidak, tadi malam setelah shalat Maghrib terjadi gerhana bulan sebagian. Beberapa kali peristiwa gempa di tanah air dilaporkan ketika hari itu atau beberapa hari sebelumnya ada gerhana bulan. Apakah ada hubungan antara gerhana dan gempa? Saya tidak yakin kedua fenomena alam itu ada hubungannya.

Semalam usi shalat Maghrib DKM masjid di RW saya mengumumkan akan ada shalat gerhana bulan. Dalam ajaran Islam, kita dianjurkan untuk shalat sunnat 2 rakaat ketika terjadi gerhana, baik gerhana bulan maupun gerhana matahari. Tujuan shalat itu adalah untuk mengingat kebesaran Allah SWT, sebab terjadinya gerhana dan semua fenomena alam adalah karena Kekuasaan Allah semata.

Saya sangat jarang mengikuti shalat gerhana. Sebelum shalat gerhana dimulai dikumandangkan takbir dan tahmid dari masjid untuk mengagungkan kebesaran Allah SWT. Orang-orang yang tidak mengerti mungkin mengira ada apa kok ada takbiran, apa besok lebaran? :-) . Shalat gerhana agak berbeda dengan shalat sunnah lainnnya. Setelah i’tidal (berdiri setelah ruku’), kita tidak langsung sujud, tetapi berdiri lagi dan membaca surrah lainnya di dalam Al-quran. Jadi, pada setiap rakaat ada dua kali pembacaan surrah Alquran.

Shalat gerhana dilakukan pada saat gerhana. Kalau shalat gerhana matahari dilakukan pada siang hari, maka shalat gerhana dlakukan pada malam hari. Jika gerhana bulan terjadi pada pukul 02.00 dinihari, maka ummat Islam shalat gerhana sekitar pukul itu.

Begitulah, kita selalu diingatkan pada kebesaran Allah SWT. Gempa dan gerhana adalah fenomena alam yang menunjukkan keagungan Tuhan.


Written by rinaldimunir

June 27th, 2010 at 6:58 am

Soto Betawi

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Salah satu menu favorit keluarga, kalau di Bandung kita jajan di soto betawi ‘999′ yang di depan bengkel dekat SMA 24 Ujung berung, apa masih ada ?
Setelah memperhatikan dagangan & ngobrol dg mang 999, dan coba-coba resep di internet, jadilah soto betawi ala mang 999. Kelihatannya ribet, dengan sering mencoba insyaAllah tidak ribet :)  Mangga bagi yang ingin memulai jualan soto betawinya, bisa dipake juga coba-coba eksperimen resep ini, siapa tahu cocok :)

Bahan:
3/4 kilo daging sapi, daging saja, atau daging dg sedikit sekali lemak
1/4 atau 1/2 kilo jerohan, pilih sesukanya, cuci bersih, rebus terpisah dg daun salam. Kalau tidak suka jerohan, daging saja 1 kilo.

catatan: isi soto betawi ini bisa macam-macam, bisa juga dg kaki sapi, kaki kambing, serba kambing, dan sejenisnya.

200 cc santen kotakan
500 cc susu segar kotakan
1500 cc air biasa

Bumbu:
Bawang merah, 4-5 butir, tapi kalau bawang merah di Blnd yg guede itu saya pake 1 butir
Bawang putih 5-7 siung
Ketumbar 1 sdm
Pala 1/2 sdt
Jinten 1/2 sdt
merica 1/2 sdt
Daun salam 1-2 lembar
Sereh 1 batang
Jahe 2 ruas jari
garam secukupnya
dikasih kaldu blok/penyedap atau tidak suka2 saja

Tambahan untuk penyajian:
daung bawang iris untuk taburan
tomat segar nanti diiris
kentang dibelah/iris, digoreng nanti untuk ditambahkan
emping goreng untuk taburan
Ghee atau minyak samin
bawang goreng kalau punya, engga jg gpp :)
sambel cabe, cabe rawit rebus dulu, di blender
kecap manis kalau suka, jeruk sambel atau jeruk nipis

Cara Membuat:

– didihkan air, masukkan daun salam, dan jahe (atau jahenya ikut diblender)
- rebus daging sampe empuk sekali, angkat, potong2 kecil2 pipih, ada yang suka digoreng, tapi saya tidak. Jerohan bersih yang direbus terpisah juga potong2 kecil kotak pipih.
- Blender bumbu, tumis dg sedikit minyak kurang lebih 2-3 sdm, tambahkan sereh, masukkan ke dalam kaldu bekas rebusan daging. Ada juga resep yang memasukkan bumbu halus tanpa ditumis, tetapi saya tidak pede dengan adanya bawang merah yang kadang bikin lengur (apa ya bhs.Indonesianya?)
- masukkan santen, aduk-aduk, masukkan susu segar, aduk-aduk, tambahkan garam, kaldu blok atau penyedap
- kalau saya daging + jerohan dimasukkan langsung ke dalam kuah, bersama didihkan. Tetapi bisa juga seperti mang dagang, dagingnya dipisah dg kuah, dicampur dalam penyajian saja.

Penyajian:
- masukkan kentang yg dipotong dadu, tomat iris sesukanya, daun bawang segar, tambahkan seujung sendok kecil ghee/minyak samin, sedikiiit saja, kalau banyak2 suka berasa nempel di lidah, siram dg kuah+daging, tambahkan emping. Kalau suka pedes tinggal tambahkan sambel cabe rawit, peresan jeruk, atau kalau suka kecap tambahkan kecap sedikiiit saja :)

Written by ibu didin

June 25th, 2010 at 12:37 am

SmartQ-V7: Gadget 3 Jutaan Mirip iPad, Ada HDMI, Port USB, 3 OS

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Apa jadinya 3 sistem operasi bila disatukan ke dalam 1 gadget? Tentu saja Anda tidak akan bisa menjalankan sistem operasi tersebut bersamaan. Artinya, lokasi file yang dibuat akan bertebaran bila tidak disiapkan folder bersama.

Tahun 80-an, 90% pengguna komputer adalah programmer. Programmer membutuhkan keyboard untuk memasukkan perintah-perintah teks yang mampu dipahami oleh komputer (bahkan hingga saat ini). Zaman telah berubah, kini terjadi sebaliknya, 90% pengguna komputer bukan lagi programmer. Keberadaan keyboard perlu ditinjau ulang, karena kebanyakan komputer hanya digunakan untuk memutar musik dan film, browsing di Internet, dan aktifitas bersifat pasif lain yang kurang membutuhkan keyboard. Asumsi tambahan, membuka e-mail, Facebook, YM dan lain-lain trennya bergeser cukup dari ponsel dan BB saja. (Data statistik di atas hanya perkiraan pribadi penulis, tidak dapat dijadikan acuan untuk bahan tulisan/keputusan)

Setelah keyboard dihilangkan, tersisalah layar sentuh sebagaimana pada iPad. Harga iPad di kisaran 6 hingga 8 jutaan masih terlalu mahal bila dibandingkan dengan netbook berprosesor Intel Atom yang sudah dilengkapi Microsoft Windows.

Smart Devices, perusahaan IT di China kemudian membuat SmartQ-V7, sebuah gadget dengan kemampuan setara iPad dan kelebihan berupa apa yang dirasa kurang dari iPad. Kelebihan utamanya adalah adanya port USB, HDMI, 3 OS serta sandaran ketika diletakkan di meja.

Berikut ini spesifikasi SmartQ-V7 disalin dari http://en.smartdevices.com.cn/Products/V7/200912/04-40.html

V7 Features
Operating System Ubuntu Linux
Android
Windows CE 6.0
Internet Internet connectivity via WLAN, bluetooth, and USB wireless network card
Connectivity to 2G/3G network(GPRS/EDGE/CDMA/EVDO/WCDMA/TE-SCDMA) [1]
PPS online video playback[2]
Full featured Web browser
Instant messenger with support for QQ?MSN?Fetion?Google Talk protocals
Receive and send email
BT download
Replay online video files from video web sites such as YouTube and Tudou
Support Internet radio and Internet Television
Office Read and edit document in DOC?OpenOffice?RTF?HTML?TXT formats
Edit excel files
Personal information management
Audio Support all the usual audio formats
Support music library, tag search
Support online streaming media
Video 1080P video playback
Video formats supported: AVI, MKV(XVID/px/H.264), MOV,TS,M2TS,RM/RMVB, FLV, WMV, 3GP, MPEG, DAT, MP4
Read Support documents in TXT,PDF,HTML,CHM,RTF formats
Picture Support JPEG?GIF?PNG?BMP files
Picture rotating, zooming out
Support Painting
Game Varieties of puzzle game built-in
Others English-Chinese/Chinese-English dictionary, support Cursor-Point translation and online translation
Compression and decompression of files in usual formats
Calculator
Notepad
Language Simplified Chinese, English
V7 Hardware Specs
CPU ARM11 architecture processor
600MHz
Support hardward 3D graphics acceleration
Memory DDR II RAM 256MB
128MB Virtual Cache
Storage 2GB Nand Flash, 128MB available to users
support SD/SDHC card with a maximum capacity of 32GB
Wireless IEEE 802.11 b/g network
Bluetooth2.0+EDR
USB USB 2.0 HighSpeed OTG port
Video Out HDMI port
AV port
Audio 3.5mm earphone port
high-quality stereo loudspeaker
built-in microphone
Maximum output power of earphone 40mW
Frequency Response 20Hz-20kHz
Signal-to-Noise Ratio 94dB
Screen Size 7.0 inches
Resolution WVGA (800×480)
Colors 16 million colors
Operation Resistive touch-screen
Others Size About 200mm(length) ×120mm(width) ×24mm(depth)
Color White
Weight About 480 g
Battery 4500mAH Built-in Li-poly battery
Accessories power adapter(DC 5.0V/2.0A), HDMI cable, touch pen, quick user guidance, certificate of quality, warranty card
[1]This function demands connection to USB card expansion card.
[2]For reason of China’s online video industry regulation, PPS service is unavailable at present.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

Bagaimana? Bila iPad China ada di kisaran 1,5 hingga 2 jutaan, SmartQ-V7 ditawarkan di kisaran 3,5 juta. Harganya masih lebih mahal daripada netbook BYON berprosesor Intel Atom yang sudah dilengkapi Microsoft Windows (Rp 2,66jt).

Untuk tipe pengguna komputer yang produktif, misalnya penulis, dsb., memilih netbook tentu lebih efisien. Tapi bagi yang sudah punya notebook, sepertinya pantas untuk mempertimbangkan gadget SmartQ-V7 ini. Pertanyaannya kemudian? Kapan dan untuk apa Anda membutuhkannya? Kapan Anda butuh Linux, Android, dan Windows CE?

Walaupun ada Windows CE, jangan harap bahwa Anda dapat memasang aplikasi windows 32-bit biasa yang ditujukan untuk Windows XP. Windows CE pada SmartQ-V7 tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk menjalankan aplikasi yang dirancang untuk Windows XP/Vista/7.

Pertanyaan selanjutnya, bila Anda membutuhkannya untuk online saat di perjalanan darat, apakah USB modem Anda sudah di-support pada Windows CE, Ubuntu, atau Android? Bila ternyata tidak, artinya Anda hanya bisa online melalui akses wi-fi. Pikirkan sekali lagi sebelum memutuskan untuk membeli!


Written by arifrahmat

June 24th, 2010 at 4:51 pm

Masyarakat Sakit

without comments

Pasca ditangkapnya Ariel karena kasus video zinah, ada fenomena menarik yang terjadi beberapa hari terakhir ini. Seperti yang telah diduga, berita yang masif tentang Ariel yang menjadi bulan-bulanan di media massa dan menjadi sasaran hujatan oleh masyarakat, ternyata melahirkan sekelompok orang yang malah memberikan dukungan kepada trio artis yang terlibat dalam video itu (seperti dalam berita ini dan yang ini). Ya, antipati pada akhirnya akan berbalik menjadi simpati, bahkan bukan tidak mungkin mereka akan menjadi pahlawan dan dielu-elukan. Sudah banyak di negeri ini orang-orang yang menjadi simbol ketidakadilan berbalik mendapat dukungan dan menjadi pahlawan.

Ini pertanda masyarakat yang sakit, bukannya dijauhi malah didukung. Dukungan kepada trio artis ini malah membuat pelakunya semakin pede bahwa yang mereka lakukan bukanlah kesalahan, bukan dosa, toh banyak orang yang memberi dukungan dan simpati, terutama dari kalangan kaum pesohor. Trio artis itu diposisikan sebagai korban dan rasa ketidakadilan.

Mereka (kalangan yang mendukung itu), tidak memikirkan akibat peredaran video zina itu, jutaan anak dan remaja menjadi korban. Anak-anak yang tidak tahu apa-apa soal hubungan orang dewasa, menjadi tahu. Ini baru permulaan, selanjutnya mereka akan mencari tahu lebih banyak lagi dan akhirnya menjadi pecandu pornografi. Padahal sudah sering ditulis oleh para ahli bahwa pornografi dapat meracuni pikiran dan merusak mental. Efek jangka panjangnya sangat hebat dan menimbulkan kejahatan baru seperti kasus perkosaan dan pelecehan seksual.

Kasus Ariel ini kemungkinan akan direduksi sebagai urusan privacy, misalnya untuk koleksi pribadi. Kesalahan justru akan ditimpakan kepada pengedar video tersebut. Para pengacaranya akan mencari celah-celah hukum untuk meloloskan kliennya dari jerat hukum. Mereka akan menggunakan kelemahan yang terdapat pada pasal-pasal UU ITE, KUHP, dan UU Pornografi. Pada akhirnya para pengacara itu juga akan melindungi perbuatan kliennya dengan berbagai dalih. Mereka akan menutupi kebenaran dan melawan suara hati nurani mereka sendiri.

Jika ini terjadi, yaitu Ariel cs lolos dari jerat hukum pengadilan, maka saya khawatir pelaku video zina itu akan berhadapan dengan masyarakat yang gemas dan marah. Pengadilan oleh masyarakat jauh lebih kejam daripada pengadilan pidana.


Written by rinaldimunir

June 24th, 2010 at 4:18 pm

Posted in Indonesiaku

Summary Convergence and divergence in the World economy

without comments

The Solow model predicted convergence and higher growth rates for lagging countries. How did economists justify the empirical evidence that catch-up by lagging countries was not happening at the rate predicted by Solovian growth?

Neo-classical reasoning would predict that the poorer countries would catch up with the richer countries due to diminishing returns on reproducible capital.

Poor countries tend to have low ratios of capital to labor, and consequently have high marginal products of capital. Therefore, they tend to grow at relatively high rates.

According to Gerschenkron (1962), catch-up by poor countries is not automatic, but requires a significant amount of effort and institution building. Later on, Ohkawa and Rosovsky (1973) coined the term ‘social capability’ “to designate those factors constituting a country’s ability to import or engage in technological and organizational progress”. As important factors of social capability, Abramovitz (1986) indicates technical competence, and political, commercial, industrial, and financial institutions. Consequently, an important argument made by Abramovitz is the following: because technologies are shaped by the environment in which they develop, countries that differ much from the leader country in factor supply, market size, etc. may sometimes find it difficult to apply leader country technology. This latter is referred to with ‘technological congruence’. When this congruence is low, it is hard for a backward country to adopt a technology from abroad.

It is thus hard for a country, which has a low social capability, to catch up with the leading country. This conclusion is not in line with the traditional neo-economical reasoning. Neo-classical reasoning would predict that the poorer countries would catch up with the richer countries due to diminishing returns on reproducible capital. This new reasoning however, would be in line with neo-classical theory, only when the country has enough social capability to imitate the leader country. In the case that a sufficient level of social capability is absent, a low initial GDP would not directly lead to a higher growth in the future. Or to explain the absence of convergence of growth rates of different countries in other words: the beneficial external effects of capital accumulation outweigh the detrimental consequences of increasing capital per worker (Scott, 1989). Thus, convergence between growth rates of different countries does not have to been as a given.

Trace the contribution of both neo-classical/ formal theories and of appreciative/evolutionary theories to the catch-up debate. Which are the key differences between the two approaches?

Neoclassical/formal theories – endogenous growth Evolutionary/appreciative theories – technology gap
-          Assumption/reasoning:

Where neo-classical reasoning sees technology as a public good, which does not cause differences in growth rates across countries

In the analyses based on the traditional neoclassical theory of economic growth, the cross-country differences can be caused by several things, but not by technology. Since technology is a public good, it cannot evoke differences among countries in this growth.

-

-          Assumption/reasoning:

sees technology as the most important factor. In the latter, emphasis is put on social capabilities of countries, where in the first these are not so prominently present.

The technology-gap theorists on the other hand see technology as the main cause for differences in the GDP per capita growth across countries. They argue that technology is not only an artefact, but it is also embedded in organizational structures, and to successfully use it, people need some know-how. This makes it difficult to simply ‘copy’ the technology. According to Nelson (1981), it is more often than not difficult and costly to transfer technology from one setting to another. In this approach, technological change is analyzed as “the joint outcome of innovation and learning activities within organizations, especially firms, and interaction between these and their environments.”

The theoretical debate was also spurred by the increasing availability of internationally comparable datasets and running growth regressions became the most-common empirical exercise among neo-classical economists. Discuss what growth regressions can do and what their limitations are.

Neoclassical – endogenous model Evolutionary – Technology gap  model
-          Works a lot with correlations

It is hard to identify causality by means of correlations. In addition, multicollinearity can be a serious problem. these kinds of correlations are so high that regression methods are limited, especially given the fact that a lot of these factors in endogenous growth models are interdependent, so these correlations occur relatively often.

that factors that are taken into account are interdependent, while one assumption of growth accounting says that they are independent. An example of this interdependency is that in the 20th century, the US developed technologies which were capital- and scale-intensive. In order to successfully diffuse these technologies, large investments and large markets were required. In other words, the investments and the technological progress were interdependent. The reason why this is a real problem for growth accounting is that these interdependencies make it impossible to assess the magnitude of the influence of different factors. If one would first look at the share of investments on growth, and afterwards at technological progress, (too) much emphasis would be put on the investments (the technological progress would only be there to explain the ‘left-over’ from the investments). Thus the decompositions made by growth-accountants and the policy conclusions based on their work, rest on shaky ground. Several authors have stressed this point, and Maddison (1987) concluded “that there is a great deal of interaction between causes, and particularly between capital growth and technological progress, which makes it difficult to assign separate significance to each.”. Note that this interdependency is also risky with other methods like linear regression due to multicollinearity.

The second approach tries to provide a better understanding of mechanisms underlying economic growth differences across countries. According to Verspagen (1991) the new model explains the empirical observations better, but the new model still poorly fits the data in absolute terms. Therefore this method helps to increase understanding of the phenomenon, which is a strength, but it gives little predictive power.

The two approaches also differ with respect to policy implications. For example, from the research of Verspagen (1991) some concrete policy implications are derived. When the technology gap between your country and a richer country is big, you should first increase the intrinsic learning capability. Then your country can start to catch up, and in the end your own country should invest in research to completely close the gap. It then also gives insights for successful cooperation with developing countries.

The research of Barro (1991) on the other hand provides some interesting regularities, but policy implications cannot simply be derived. Especially since causality is not easy to show, other theories should be combined with the findings to come to reasonable policy implications.

On a more general level, the approaches also differ in their strengths. Although the technology-gap approach might explain the influence of technology (gaps) on economic growth more successful than endogenous growth models, it does not say anything about other factors related to growth, which is done by endogenous growth models. With the assumption that technology is the only real cause of differences in economic growth, this stand could be defended, but I personally doubt whether that assumption holds.

Furthermore, the technology-gap approach says something about gaps, but hardly anything about the growth of a leading country. In other words, it is useful to analyze convergence and divergence between countries, but on an absolute scale it is not as useful.

Written by ibu didin

June 24th, 2010 at 4:07 pm

Summary Model of Economic Growh

without comments

The evolution of models of economic growth: which generations of models can be recognized starting from the seminal Solow model? Be able to explain the improvements brought by more recent models.

Neoclassical Model – Mankiw (Based on Solow Model)

The basic version of neoclassical model of economic growth was developed by Robert Solow (1956). In this model, the production function of an economy is the center piece, it defines relationship  between production factors and output.

In neoclassical models, the main production factors are capital and labour, the level of technology is considered as an exogenous factor that increases efficiency. Thus, the production function takes the form of Y = F(K,A*L), in which A is the level of technology and A*L is an ‘efficiency unit’ of labour.  If the production function is assumed to have constant returns to scale, then the output per efficiency unit (y = Y/A*L) is only dependent on the amount of capital per efficiency unit. Economic growth arises from the accumulation of capital. In the Solow model, the amount of capital per efficiency unit (k = K/A*L) is governed by two opposing forces: investment and depreciation. As long as the production function is ‘well behaved’ the economy over time approaches a steady state, in which income per efficiency unit constant.

In the Solow model an economy reaches a ‘steady state’, which is independent of the initial conditions of an economy.  In this steady state, the level of income depends on the rate of savings and population growth; the growth of the level of income only depends on technological growth; therefore, sustained growth requires technological growth.

Herman Daly, one of the founders of the field of ecological economics and a leading critic of neoclassical economics,[1] defines a steady state economy as

…an economy with constant stocks of people and artifacts, maintained at some desired, sufficient levels by low rates of maintenance “throughput”, that is, by the lowest feasible flows of matter and energy from the first stage of production to the last stage of consumption.”[2]

A steady state economy, therefore, aims for stable or mildly fluctuating levels in population and consumption of energy and materials. Birth rates equal death rates, and saving/investment equals depreciation.

Theoretical objection to Solow Model:

-          Solow model in the end could not explain all factors included. For instance, saving rate is taken as exogenous parameter, while saving decisions involve complex behaviour (which is should be endogenous)

-          Technological growth which is treated as exogenous parameter become the only one that matters for determining growth once the steady state has been reached.

Some of these restriction are overcome in the growth accounting methodology, in which a production function of Y=A*F(K,L) is assumed; the A parameter of efficiency is now regarded as the measure of ‘Total Factor Productivity’ (TFP), which incorporates all causes of growth. In growth accounting, growth is explained by deducting various causes from the TFP, minimizing the residual. However this methodology too is not free of problems: it fails to explain the role of institutions and technology, and Abramovits has called the residual as ‘measure of our ignorance’

Model objection to Solow Model:

-          Prediction about effect of population growth were not consistent with reality

-          Model predicts higher rate of convergence between countries (and independence of initial conditions) than is observed.

-          It does not explain fact that there is less capital flow than expected to developing countries. (For example accounting in human capital of developing countries, they need human capital, but lending money to train/educate people is difficult, as human capital does not serve well as a collateral)

-          The magnitude of international differences. The model underestimates income  inequality  in the world. Makwin shortly describes that it could be that an other production function and therefore a lack of imitating western technology, is the cause, but assumes this cannot be taken for granted without further research.

-          The rate of convergence: the phenomenon that poor countries tend to grow faster than rich countries. The rate of conditional convergence is not predicted by the model, only the quality of conditional convergence is explained. Initial conditions of an economy are underestimated in time:  initial conditions play longer a role. This will be discussed more broadly in seminar 12.

-          Rates of return. The difference in rate of return between countries is predicted much higher than in the real world is the case. These different rate of returns makes it now western markets are or soon will become saturated more attractive for companies to invest in emerging markets in thrird world countries. This topic is also discussed in courses like Development theory, strategy and policy and Technology and Globalization. This could be also linked to Commercial expansion, a gain of trade due to more trade and therefore better division of labour, also known as smithian growth, described by Mokyr (Mokyr, 1990).

All three problems are related to the capital share and therefore the shape of the production function.

Endogenous Model – Mankiw (Development from Neo-classical Solow Model)

From Solow Model, it is clear that a model of economic growth should at least incorporate an explanation from technological growth: simply including it as a factor is not enough. An attempt at incorporating the role of technological growth is the endogenous growth model (EGM).

EGM model also stems from the accumulation of capital. EGM assumes Y = A*K as the production function; this implies output is doubled when capital is doubled. An implication is that there is no such thing as a steady state: as long as sA > d (rate of saving * TFP larger than depreciation rate), income grows, even without the assumption of exogenous technological growth.  While savings increase growth only temporarily in the neo-classical model, they increase growth forever in the EGM.  Therefore, differences in savings across countries lead to larger differences over time than the neo-classical model.

One group holds that changes in TFP measure the rate of technical change. (Law,

Statscan, Krugman, Young.) We refer to this as the “conventional view”.

The second group holds that TFP measures only the free lunches of technical

change, which are mainly associated with externalities and scale effects.

(Jorgenson, and Griliches (6)) We refer to their position as the “J&G view”.

The third group is sceptical that TFP measures anything useful. (Metcalf, and

Griliches (8))

a b Y = AL K , a + b= 1

Total aggregate output is measured as Y. L is an index of aggregate labour inputs. K is an index of aggregate capital. Typically Y, L and K are independently measured while A, a and b are statistical estimations. A is an index of the aggregate state of technology called total factor productivity. Since A is not a pure number, it carries no interesting information in itself. But changes in the number indicate shifts in the relation between measured aggregate inputs and outputs and in this aggregate model these changes are assumed to be caused by changes in technology (or changes in efficiency and/or in the scale of operations of firms).

In EGM, knowledge is added to the model as a type of capital (albeit capital that is “less likely to exhibit diminishing returns” and “might even exhibit increasing returns”). An example of a model that incorporates knowledge which distinguishes between manufacturers that produce goods and universities that knowledge. The model also shows that there is a clear role for policy for defining and influencing ‘university-labour’ ratio. However the model does not account for research done within firms (and the necessary incentives, such as a patent system to stimulate it); endogenous growth models assume that knowledge eventually ‘spill over’ from a firm to the whole market.

It is important to note that human capital is a different thing than knowledge. As Mankiw et al put it, “knowledge is the quality of society’s textbooks; human capital is the amount of time spent reading them.”  What this refers to is the difference between embodied and disembodied technological progress. In the Solow model, only embodied technological progress is considered, which is progress that is embedded in tangible assets (i.e machine) and/or increases the efficiency of labour.  Disembodied technological progress, in contrast, is technological progress that allows more output using the already given inputs.

Evolutionary Model – Verspagen & Silverberg

Three pillars of any evolutionary theory are variation, selection, and inheritance. In the evolutionary models Verspagen describes the unit of analysis are firms, who use a particular technology; in biological terms the technology is the genotype, while the firm is the phenotype.  Variation is caused by the fact that individuals operate under bounded rationality, which means that individuals or firms simply cannot see ‘the best’ or even all possible opportunities, and therefore act according to ‘rules of thumbs’ and routines.  This is in contrast with neoclassical theories, who typically assume a ‘birds-eye’ view over the economy. The selection environment is the market: successful firms grow, while others disappear.  Although Verspagen does not go into very much detail, imitation between firms can be seen as a kind of inheritance.

The first evolutionary growth model is introduced by the work of Nelson and Winter in 1982. From the course evolutionary foundations it is already learned that an evolutionary approach is applicable to economics, due to the resemblance in both areas of competition, innovation, variation and selection. Furthermore Verspagen and Silverberg argue that economic evolution is part of a larger evolutionary process and not something developed by accident.

The aim of the evolutionary growth model is to formulate a population dynamics if the multilevel evolutionary process.  Another aim is to show that the precision in results of neoclassical models are illusionary.

All the evolutionary growth models talked about in the article focus on technical change.

They are microeconomic based and mostly analyzed by computer simulations.

An other group of evolutionary growth models is not microeconomic based and not analyzed by computers. Characteristics that they do have in common are:

-           Heterogeneity of the population (firms, countries, techniques)

-          The  generation of novelty in the population (mutation by example innovations)

-          Selection (largely driven by rate of returns)

-          Economic outcomes of the analysis

The neoclassical model of Solow and the evolutionary model by Nelson and Winter seem to explain the same empirical trends, the underlying mechanisms are different:

-          In evolutionary growth models there is no production function.

-          Evolutionary growth models growth is driven by selection.

-          Innovations are generated endogenously, rather than exogenously

-          Evolutionary models are only applied in certain time spaces.

-          Evolutionary models do not give a result which indicate precisely which factors play which role explaining growth, whereas neoclassical theory comes with precise results

-          Evolutionary models work in circumstances where heterogeneous firms, disequilibrium and bounded rationality are present

-          Most evolutionary models have the driving force stochastic technical change for economic growth.

Silverberg and Verspagen argue that the evolutionary approach should be extended with the ‘chance and necessity’ debate which includes that some events are more likely to occur in history than others. There is much uncertainty about exact outcomes, but there is a limit to this randomness.

Evolutionary and neo-classical models differ along many key dimensions: be able to list and discuss the key differences and why they are important for what the models are able to do and what not.

Neoclassical + Endogenous Evolutionary
-          Unit of analysis: macro level

Aggregate production function

-          Unit of analysis micro level (firm, sector)

Firm or sector use particular type of technology

-          Deterministic, newtonian view of time

Future time of the system can be predicted with full accuracy if only enough information about the present state is known.

-          Non deterministic view of time

A mixture of change and necessities. Cannot go back and go forth.

Impact of particular policy change cannot be predicted exactly, since such change has its effect on a ‘complex range of interrelated factors’

-          Simplifying assumption

Example: knowledge is public good available freely

Perfect competition

More realistic assumption

-          Knowledge’s restricted

-          Possibility of market failure

-          Weak Uncertainty

Top down view of economy, if information assume available enough, uncertainty then assumed weak.

Bounded rationality and strong uncertainty
Formal quantitative model Appreciative qualitative model
Mockyr growth theory:

Solovian growth: the growth of capital stock is the main pilar, investment is possible when money is saved. In Solow model does not elaborate on how this saving decision is made (given/exogenous)

Smithian growth:

Growth through commercial expansion, caused by increasing trade. Policies like intellectual property does not cover.

Related to this growth is growth through scale and size effects, this incorporated in production function, solow model does incorporate quite explicitely is the population growth, but this is about the cange of income per capita than economic growth.

Schumpetarian growth

Growth caused by increase in the stock of human knowledge, in the form of technological change and innovations.

In neoclassical model Schumpetarian growth is included only as a single ‘g’ parameter, and knowledge stock concept is not used.

Endogenous treat knowledge as special type of capital.

Mockyr growth theory:

Solovian growth:

Decision of saving could be incorporated as a gene for a firm, firm’s fitness can be influenced by its decision to save or not.

Smithian growth:

Not explaination for intellectual property

Use technological change and entrepreneurial activity as the starting point, firms are units of analysis and their performance is defined by the fitness of their technology.

Written by ibu didin

June 24th, 2010 at 3:26 pm

Summary Growth Accounting

without comments

Growth accounting

Understand the aim and idea behind growth accounting: what can it do and what not?

Growth accounting is methodology as indirect way to measure technology and knowledge (also common with term technological progress) which are soft elements related to the efficiency of production function. They explain why a country is able to produce more than with the same input.

What can it do:

- a useful framework for assembling quantitative “facts” and quantified hypotheses about growth causality in a coherent way.

- Relevance for quantitative analysis of economic history, it has a certain explanatory power for each country and time period which in the past has often been based on loose description, untestable assertions, and literary modes of persuasion. This result can indicate likely and unlikely cause of growth or decline.

- It also has spurred large improvements in measurement at statistical offices.

What not/limitation:

- Strong assumptions of perfect competition (the way weighted)

- Productivity is taken as macro-phenomenon, no consideration of firm level heterogeneity

- Factor inputs are not independent

- No consideration for role of institution

- Poor conceptualization of technology, residual element is not reflection or a measure of technological change, but can be considered a measure of our ignorance (probably informal sector, government sector)

- It should also be emphasized that this approach deals only with proximate causality, and one has to look behind this to institutions, ideology, sociopolitical conflicts, degree of sophistication of policy,system shocks such as wars, and other historical accidents to get a fuller picture.

On the one hand he engages in establishing what he refers to as “ultimate causality,” which considers the importance of institutional and other unmeasurable factors, such as politics, CULTURE and economic polities, in enabling nations to grow and develop. This is in the grand tradition of Max Weber and Karl Marx. On the other hand, Maddison also attempts to determine proximate or technocratic causation where measurable variables such as output, labor, capital and land are technically considered in the causal schema. In the latter case, one can determine the statistical relationship between variables. But also, this correlation may be suggestive of causality and point to further research toward determining ultimate causality. Technical progress, although not quantifiable in any direct or exact manner, is approximated using a combination of proximate and ultimate analysis.

What does the combined use of growth accounting and structural change analysis say about the productivity gap between US and Europe (according to the data presented by van Ark et al)?

- Main differences between Europe and US in 1995-2006 are in TFP, not in capital intensity nor in labor quality

- TFP residual remains a black box including organizational and institutional innovation

- They recognize the sources of TFP differ per sector and the additional analysis indicates that Europe lags behind in market services.

The resurgence of productivity growth in the US appears to have been a combination of high levels of investment in rapidly progressing information and communication technology in the second half of 1990s, followed by rapid productivity growth in the market services sector of the economy in the first half of the 2000s.

Conversely, the productivity slowdown in the Europe countries is largely the result of slower multifactor productivity MFP growth in market services, particularly in trade, finance, and business services.

Innovation in services are more difficult to imitate than ‘hard’ technologies based in manufacturing.  The greater emphasis on human resources, organizational change, and other intangible investments are strongly specific to individual firm.  Moreover, the firm receives most of the benefits of such changes, which reduces the legitimation for government support such as research and development and innovation subsidies to support ‘technology’ transfer in services.  Service activities also tend to be less standardized and more customized than manufacturing production; they depend strongly on the interaction with the consumer and are therefore  more embedded in national and cultural institutions.  In this situation, the spillover of technologies across firms and nations becomes much more difficult.

Written by ibu didin

June 24th, 2010 at 3:11 pm